Dentistry second-stage lectures

Blood Group – 2nd stage

Blood Group
The differences in human blood are due to the presence or absence of certain protein molecules called antigens and antibodies. – The antigens are located on the surface of the RBCs and the antibodies are in the blood plasma. – Individuals have different types and combinations of these molecules. – The blood group you belong to depends on what you have inherited from your parents.
• According to the ABO blood typing system there are four different kinds of blood types: A, B, AB or O (null)
Blood group O is called “universal donor” because it has no antigens on RBC.
Blood group AB are called “universal receivers“ because it has no anti- bodies in the plasma.


• LEUKOCYTE: Complete cells , colorless (nuclei, mitochondria and organelles)
• The leucocytes (WBCs) of the peripheral blood are of two main varieties, distinguished by the presence or absence of granules.
These are granulocytes and a granulocytes (non granulocytes).
Total leucocyte count varies with adults: 4000–11,000/mm3of blood.
The life of the granulocytes after being released from the bone marrow is normally 4 to 8 hours circulating in the blood and another 4 to 5 days in tissues where they are needed.
 The monocytes have 10 to 20 hours in the blood. Once in the tissues, they swell to much larger sizes to become tissue macrophages, and in this form, can live for month.
 The lymphocytes have life spans of weeks or months.

lymphatic system – 2nd stage

Lymphatic system & Immunity
Lymph – excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels (general definition)
Jobs of Lymphatic System
Lymphatic System which consists of vessels and organs plays two vital roles in our lives:
1) The vessels essentially maintain interstitial fluid levels by carrying excess fluids as well as any plasma proteins, back into the CVS.
The organs, house critical immune cells such as lymphocytes which carry out our body defense against infection and disease as well as offer ACQUIRED IMMUNITY .
Properties of lymphatic vessels
 One way system toward the heart – 
– No pump
 Lymph moves toward the heart
• Milking action of skeletal muscle
• Rhythmic contraction of smooth muscle in vessel walls

circulatory system

The cardiovascular system is responsible for moving blood to and from the heart. It has three parts: the heart, the blood and the blood vessels. The heart uses two pumps to circulate blood through our blood vessels: one to send oxygenated blood to the body and the other to send deoxygenated blood back to the lungs to receive oxygen.
The cardiovascular is a closed system, which means that the blood never leaves the blood vessels and heart. Nutrients, dissolved gases like oxygen, and waste products can move into and out of the bloodstream, but the blood is meant to stay in the system.